Forensics vs Forensic Science

If you bring up forensics in a conversation, those involved will often start thinking of scenes from the television show CSI (Crime Scene Investigation). It’s synonymous with scouring crime scenes for minute clues to help criminal investigators create leads in various cases.

Because of the misunderstanding that’s developed about criminal investigations and forensics, many don’t realize that there is an acute difference between forensics and forensic science.

Currently, forensic science gets shortened in most discussions to “forensics.” The word “forensic” actually relates to debates, and comes from the Latin word “forensis” or “of or before the forum.” This concept became most prominent in ancient Rome where both the accused and the accuser involved in a judicial case had to advance their arguments in front of a public forum. This led to the usage of the term “forensics” for both public debate and the presentation of legal evidence.

This concept of “evidence” is what has caused it to run parallel and merge with forensic science. As the judicial system evolved, so, too, did the evidence that was required in cases. No longer was it a matter of verbal debate; instead other forms of evidence were necessary. The concept, that being “forensic” or “before the forum” still holds true. The only thing that has changed is the type of evidence that’s being presented.

While some modern dictionaries will actually merge the two and provide similar or identical definitions, they are quite separate by origin and practical application.

The term forensics refers to public debate which includes the presentation of evidence and rhetoric. Forensic Science is something different. It deals specifically with the gathering, identification, research, and scientific interpretation of evidence to determine such things as who was involved in a crime.

In addition to confusing the terms forensics and forensic science, people often mistake forensic science for criminalistics. However, it’s important to keep these terms in context too. Forensic science involves any discipline that can be applied to evidence. Criminalistics is just one of the subdivisions of forensic science.

Some of the disciplines that fall under the umbrella of “forensic science” are:

-Computer Forensics -Forensic Accounting -Forensic Audio Engineering -Forensic Linguistics -Forensic Pathology -Forensic Psychology -Forensic Engineering -Criminalistics

Criminalistics itself is the scientific discipline which brings together various natural sciences such as biology and chemistry to the examination, identification, and comparison of certain types of evidence. Criminalists deal with biological evidence including DNA and bodily fluids, trace evidence such as fibers, hair, and soil, and impression evidence such as fingerprints and tire tracks. They also are involved with ballistics, drug analysis, crime scene photography and reconstruction.

As you can see, the forensic sciences deal specifically with the research and examination of evidence so that such evidence can be admitted to and used within the legal system. Forensics on the other hand should be viewed not as the science behind the evidence, but as the presentation and use of the research once it’s completed.

Science & social responsibility in public health

Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end

Public health ethics is on the map. In the past year, bioethicists and public health practitioners have begun to focus their critical attention on this complex and understudied topic. Much remains to be done. Childress et al. (2002), for example, describe their account of public health ethics as a rough conceptual map of a terrain with undefined boundaries.

Our focus will be on the responsibilities of epidemiologists, a choice made for several compelling reasons. Epidemiology sits at the center of the science and practice of environmental health, and more generally, at the center of public health. Although it is often referred to as a basic science of public health, epidemiology connects the acquisition of scientific knowledge with its application in preventive interventions, programs, and policies. This connection suggests a fundamental question: What are our responsibilities as epidemiologists? Do we, for example, have a joint responsibility to participate in science and to apply the knowledge gained? This is a key concern for us as researchers, health professionals, and as teachers.

The social responsibility of public health professionals is but one of many concerns in the broader picture of public health ethics. It is nevertheless a central concern. As Ogletree (1996) reminds us, responsibility is a concept particularly well suited to flame many key aspects of the ethics of professions faced with making decisions and taking actions in complex situations. These decisions often involve advanced technologies, high levels of specialization, and overlapping areas of expertise and concern among decision makers from diverse educational, political, and social backgrounds, precisely the situation in contemporary epidemiology and public health. In sum, responsibility organizes many (although not all) of public health’s ethical issues in terms appropriate for professional practitioners.

Responsibility has a deeper meaning as well, corresponding to commitment. To be responsible means to be committed to someone or to some thing. Being responsible in this deeper sense involves a commitment to positive action, to the pursuit and achievement of something of value, such as a social good (Jonas 1984). We will return to the notion of social goods in public health. For now, we want to emphasize that responsibility focuses attention on professional commitments

Finally, our inquiry is intended to assist all public health researchers who seek to define their social responsibilities. For those who are involved primarily in environmental health research, we can think of at least two connected and current topics–environmental justice and community-based participatory research.

Benefits Of Fax Over IP Technology In Small Businesses

Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) technology has become standard in many offices and storefronts. It provides higher bandwidth and better capabilities than traditional phone lines. Faxing has changed because of the introduction of VoIP technology. Traditional fax machines that used modulated sound to transmit data are being replaced by software-based digital systems. Small businesses can benefit in a number of ways by switching to fax over IP technology.

Reliability

One of the ways fax over IP can help a small business is by improving the reliability of transmissions. Traditional faxes rely on signal modulation to send and receive data. Inconsistencies in the telephone lines, minor hardware issues and even different fax machines can cause these transmissions to fail or to become corrupted. The fax over IP technology is digital and the data has a very low to non-existent chance of loss. This makes digital faxes far more reliable.

Lower Costs

Fax over VoIP will save small businesses money over traditional faxing technologies. VoIP protocols can be sent across any network line. They can also be interpreted by a wide range of technologies from computers to multifunction printers and even mobile devices. This makes it unnecessary to maintain dedicated phone lines. It also decouples faxing from older fax machines that require constant maintenance, paper and toner.

Environmentally Friendly

Sending fax over VOIP in a network through a line can be done completely electronically. Small businesses do not need to feed a paper printout of an invoice or report into a machine. Similarly, faxes that have been received do not need to be printed immediately or at all. Sending and receiving faxes can be done through a software interface. Faxes can be sent and received as digital files that are viewed on computer screens or mobile devices. This allows a small business to be more environmentally friendly without having to sacrifice the convenience of faxing.

Better Access for Employees

The traditional way of sending faxes involved loading a machine, dialing a number and then waiting for a confirmation. This is time consuming and inefficient especially when multiple people need to send a fax. Fax over IP technology makes it possible for employees to send faxes seamlessly from a desktop or other device. The fax can be added as a network device similar to a printer. Employees can simply send documents to the fax from within different programs.

Higher Quality Faxes

A large benefit for modern businesses is higher quality faxes. Fax over IP can encode documents created digitally. There are no scanning or resolution issues. People who receive the fax will see the document exactly as it was created. This can make it easier to send documents that include detailed charts, small graphics or complex illustrations. The individual pixel will not run together and become illegible because of issues with an optical scanner at the last minute.

Avail the technologies of new mobile phones

New Mobile phones are very fastly flourishing in the market. These new phones not only allow us to talk and talk but it offers lots of advanced applications.

Mobile phones industries have upgraded themselves a lot since its inception. Every year there come a number mobile phones to entice not only the new mobile consumers but the existing customers also. But if you are tired of using your old keypad mobiles, a plethora of touchscreen mobile phones has come up in markets to relieve your boredom. New mobile phones are equipped with new additional features besides old ones. You can enjoy features like integration of multimedia and digital features. They offer a slew of benefits including mobile talk, facebook, wireless connectivity viz bluetooth, web browser push mail and many more. Though new mobile phones offer a whole range of exciting features, the problem that arises of finance. But don’t be disappointed, if you really want to get rid of your old clumsy handset there are a number of offers available put up by manufacturers. You can also get New Mobile phones in very low rate.

With the availabilities of mobile phone deals, contract deals and cash back offers it has been very easy for common man to purchase a flashy and stylish mobile phone. You can find a number of mobile phone selling portal on world wide web. Purchasing a mobile set through an on line contact save both time and energy. But, a consumer must keep in mind how to strike a best deal; to do this he/she should browse some websites as it helps a lot to in making a good deal. Besides, the cut throat competition to expand business has brought down prices of mobile phones all over the world resulting good opportunities for consumers to enjoy new touch screen mobiles fitted with advanced technologies. So what are waiting for, don’t wait for your friend to show off his new technically embedded mobile phone, you too can make him feel how tech savvy you are and advanced you are. There are number of mobile phones in the range of Upcoming mobile phones.

Tomy Nastey shares his knowledge on technical gizmos that makes you able to find the plans that best fits your needs. He has won appreciation from people for write about Coming soon mobiles, coming soon mobile phones, coming soon phones, new mobile phones, upcoming mobile phones, upcoming mobiles.

POSqx booming the restaurant industry with New point of sale technology

For running the restaurant in more advanced way, you need to use high-end best POS point of sale technology. A Point of sale technology can manage the lot in your restaurant fairly comfortably and precisely. Most importantly, New point of sale technology can process all sales made in your store be it credit card, debit card or cash payment. Unsurprisingly, the Business point of sale technology is equipped with a full payment processing system and from your part; you should take no chances in ensuring that the Best POS point of sale technology is fully safe for such processing.

Your customers may opt to pay through different means where it may be cash, credit cards or cash cards; even some of them may be your usual customers whom you will charge seldom. So, Best POS point of sale technology vendors gives sufficient fondness for collecting and processing payments in dissimilar modes. The New point of sale technology should also facilitate you to bring together payments from customers whose records are saved in the main database of the best restaurant management software.

Under standard conditions, your customer will dine in your restaurant, walk up to the cash-counter or the payment processing systems console and pay using his cash/credit card or simple cash. Now, if the customer pays in cash, the best Point of sale technology software will open up the cash-drawer robotically the moment the cashier enters the cash details in the console. For credit/debit card dealing out, you will get your customer’s card swiped in the system and the amount will be routinely updated in the best restaurant management software.

All POS inventory system is equipped with adequate security features to prevent mal-practices. As you get various reports on the data collected in the POS inventory system, any discrepancy will be easily noticeable to you. The information of your customers’ credit or debit cards is completely encrypted through the Business point of sale technology so that they can dine and enjoy in the restaurant generously. A number of best Point of sale technology are also equipped with online payment gateways to full transactions over the web from the POS inventory system console.

It is vital to run your restaurant with an optimized system offering the customer with an immense dining skill. So, to linger in the business fruitfully, you need to have Best POS point of sale technology besides efficient workforce and sufficient infrastructure. Ultimately, your New point of sale technology makes the difference and takes you towards achievement.

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Point of sale technology, New point of sale technology, Business point of sale technology, POS point of sale technology, Best POS point of sale technology, POS inventory system

Social Science Dictionary

The social science dictionary has an approach to concentrate on a wider discipline of Education, History, Politics and all the studies related to social science. The dictionarys glossary will enable the search criteria easier to find the exact information that a person is looking for. It has the definitions of basic concepts and branches through the divisions in social science. The branches again take you to the related definitions and keywords used in the social science.

The social science is a concept which is wider than the concept of sociology. The dictionary on social science includes the meaning of all the disciplines that come under this field. So, at a single glance this is useful dictionary for various people in the various categories under one topic, Social science. The terms that date from the older centuries and those that are used in common nowadays are included in the social dictionary.

Economy, History, Politics, Education, Psychology and Sociology is all what is covered in this dictionary. The analysis made on the terms and definition in this social science dictionary is the work of the experts, their knowledge on things and their experience. This dictionary makes the job of the users who rely upon it. It just has it source from various renowned and authorized sites with useful and appropriate information. All you need to do is to explore the concepts, look up for the terms that you came into search for, the phrases and terminologies that you like to learn and get ideas about them in this social science dictionary.

The economics and the political science are the most common sites where people come in search of key words and definitions. The economics has further more splits like BEA economy, environmental economy and so on. The political science has the terms that are used in National and international level pf politics and those used in the Parliament generally. People preparing themselves for civic exams can very well refer this dictionary and get the at most benefit of this. It has all the concepts starting from secretarial level to chief administrators in the government. The terms and designation given to people in various level of the cabinet can also be learnt in this dictionary.

The education section in social science dictionary covers the details on the latest technology available in todays learning world. In all these criteria and divisions of the dictionary are glossaries which help the searching very easy and creates a comfort level to navigate through the desired pages of search. So, the online dictionary on social science is more useful to provide variety of learning terminologies which again is a reference catalog for various age groups starting from kids to students in higher classes and to those who are in verge of jumping into the field of politics. With all these essential stuffs available on Social science, make the best use of the dictionary and learn the various lines of social science. Happy learning!

Current Science Article Stem Cell Research in the Spotlight Once Again

Recent discoveries about the role of stem cells in cancer have altered the landscape of cancer research, says Medical News Today. There is, however, a long-running philosophical rift over stem cell research at both the state and federal levels. Some groups would rather focus on adult stem cell research, avoiding the moral and ethical questions about research involving embryos. While ethical debate on human embryonic stem cells will continue, much more is occurring on the rings surrounding this bull’s-eye issue, including research in both drug development and adult stem cells.

Biologists’ understanding of new sources and uses of adult and nonembryonic stem cells is advancing rapidly. Called “niches” or “crypts,” it seems that almost anyplace one looks in the body (nose, eye, hair follicle, intestine, bone marrow, central nervous system), stem cells are being found. From such basic knowledge, it has been reported that successful animal and human therapy using patient stem cells is already occurring. As more stem cell crypts are discovered, the desire to understand how to manipulate them within the body only becomes more acute.

At the 2007 Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research, researchers presented new discoveries about stem cells in leukemia, breast and colon cancer that add to the growing evidence that perhaps cancer is, fundamentally, a stem cell problem.

Interviewed by Vision Magazine at the Stem Cells World Congress earlier this year in La Jolla, California, veterinarian and CEO of Vet-Stem, Robert Harmon, explained how his company is currently providing stem cell therapies for animals. Injected into an injury or degenerated tissue, the stem cell treatment evokes healing in unprecedented ways. As it has been since its discovery almost 400 years ago, the cell and the “vital force” that makes it the seat of biological life continues to hold attention. It is likely that there will be no end to the moral and ethical questions and investigations. Today’s new age of molecular understanding, genomics, proteomics, gene splicing and bioengineering is barely underway. It is not surprising, then, that the more we know, the more we recognize how little we understand.

The timeline of discovery has been exponential: from discovery of the DNA double helix in 1953, and the understanding of the genetic code, gene splicing and cell differentiation in the 60s, 70s and 80s, science rapidly jumped up the learning curve to the cloning of whole organisms and the discovery of embryonic stem cells less than a decade ago. The future possibilities for the application of this knowledge seem enormous.

Read the full article about Stem Cell Research and interviews with speakers at the Stem Cells World Conference at Vision.org.

Music Science Fair Projects

Music Science Fair Projects

Students and adults alike might be surprised that an interest in music and participation in a science fair can be combined. Music science fair projects are some of the most interesting demonstrations at the school event. Most people enjoy some style of music in their car, at home, with a personal music player, in a band, or at concert. Many people enjoy singing in a choir. What all these venues have in common is obviously music. What most participants do not realize is that there is science at work in every note they play, sing or hear! Music science fair projects offer the students and the visitors to the event to learn completely new concepts of science as they relate to music. Many of these people will leave the event with a deeper level of understanding of and appreciation for the magical science that is music!

Music science fair projects are chosen by students who have a love of the universal language that we all call music. The most creative students will choose music science fair projects to investigate the various topics surrounding the production and enjoyment of music. The first category of music science fair projects will focus on different ways to produce the tones that human being consider musical. This may include an investigation of the sounds of music from different cultures. Included in this are the unique instruments found around the world. Additionally, this may investigate the rhythms that different cultures gravitate toward. These types of music science fair projects will also demonstrate the creativity of students as they develop their own mechanisms for making musical tones. The most popular of these are crystal containers filled with various depths of water.

The other group of students presenting music science fair projects may focus on the effects that music has on people. Instead of examining the instruments, these students will explore the old adage that music hath charms to sooth the savage breast. There are still research studies being conducted on the soothing effects of music on various demographics of people as well as different animal and plant life. These students who present demonstrations and research findings on this data also increase everyones understanding and appreciation for the universal language of music.

Environmental advantages of Suspended Particle Device Glass Technology

The idea of the “home of the future” usually contrasts with the idea of environmental responsibility. The perception of technology being detrimental to ecologicial stability is slowly being replaced with the advent of smart technologies such as Suspended Particle Device or SPD glass.

What is SPD Glass?

In the area of light control, there are three main technologies: polymer liquid crystal devices (PDLC), suspended particle devices (SPD) and Electro chromic devices (EC). All three may be used to produce smart glass, which is described as a glass that can change its light transmission when a voltage is applied. In a nutshell these technologies control the opacity of glass via a control method (sensors, remotes, wall switches etc) to regulate the amount of light allowed to pass through it. SPD is generally the technology of choice for use in external or solar control windows because of its reliability, price, performance, and manufacturing advantages and aesthetics.

Energy and Lighting Costs

In terms of home and office environment SPD glass facades, windows and skylights can be used to more efficiently reduce the need for air conditioning during the summer months and heating during winter.

The ability to instantly switch the glass to maximize daylight when it’s really needed and to provide controllable solar shading during peak light conditions is valuable and unique. SPD Glass has even advanced to the stage where light sensors can automatically adjust the opacity of the glass according to programmed settings. This low energy electric current saves overall temperature control and lighting costs and also reduced carbon emissions related to building maintenance.

Hygiene and Health

These SPD glass panels provide a hygienic alternative to curtains and blinds as they do not trap bacteria, grime and dust. Easily cleaned surfaces mean both a savings on cleaning agents and a cleaner environment for homeowners and building owners. Taking advantage of healthy natural lighting without the glare is the smart way to reduce eye strain and protect the skin from UV damage.

Maintenance savings

Professionally manufactures Suspended Particle Device technologies such as SPD glass utilise a highly durable, solid-state technology with no moving parts to wear out or break. Sun damage such a fading carpets, artwork and furniture is also greatly reduced making your interiors last longer. If you combine this interior longevity with the longevity of the physical glass itself you have a winning combination for your pocket and for the environment.

New Pricing Technology Makes Car Insurance Cheaper

Over the years, the technology used to calculate car insurance premiums has changed dramatically. Actuaries used to figure out premium levels by hand using books of statistical data. Later, adding machines and early computers ground through the numbers. More recently, online forms were invented which allowed you to get a quote online.

After all that time grinding things out, what most insurers and consumers wanted was speed. As a result, the current model for most traditional or mainline insurance companies in Australia consists of just a few questions. With these tiny points of data, a quote is generated based on aggregated consumer averages.

The result is a fast quote, but not a very accurate one. Most people dont notice that they are being treated as averages. They simply pay the quoted amount and pay rate increases even if they are accident free. However, you dont have to settle for this outdated and inaccurate system any more.

While most insurers havent gotten there yet, there are a few car insurance companies that have been pioneering a new way of calculating premiums. This new pricing methodology is based around creating highly detailed risk profiles of potential customers. This allows a calculation of premium that can truly separate high-risk from low risk customers.

There are several winning elements to this methodology. However, for consumers like you, the main benefit is often lower prices. If you are a good driver with a limited number of claims, you can really make home some substantial savings by switching to a company using this in-depth modelling framework to calculate rates for insurance cover.

It can feel a bit strange, especially after years of living with the old speed-is-everything system. Thats not to imply that this method isnt fast, mind you. It simply asks several additional questions about parking locations, length of commute to work, and so on.

As one of the early adopters, you stand to benefit the most. While your friends potter along with outdated insurance policies with off-the-rack premiums, you can have a custom tailored premium that only charges for the real risk you face as a driver and customer. Youll be able to quit subsidizing the behaviours of others through blanket premiums, and get to enjoy the fruits of your own careful behaviour on the road.

This is especially true if you really arent an “average” driver. If you only drive a few days a week, work from home and dont use your car regularly, or are retired and dont drive long distances, you have a dramatically different risk profile than most Australians. Yet you have been paying “average” rates for years, since the old method never inquired about your true habits.

Even if youre not a fan of the new and different, this is a new technology youll want to embrace. The new technology behind this quoting system isnt all flash and sparkle. It truly represents a way to make insurance premiums cheaper for you through more accurate pricing of your insurance cover based on your real risk profile.